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1555 Accession of Philip II of Spain as ruler over the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands.
1568 Revolt crushed by Alva, Spanish military governor, followed by a reign of terror aginst rebels and heretics.
1572 Capture of Brill by the Sea Beggars, followed by a revolt in other places in Holland and Zeeland.
1574 Failure of the Spaniards at the Siege of Leiden.
1575 Foundation of Leiden University.
1578 In a coup known as the 'Alteratie', the city of Amsterdam goes over to the rebels.
1579 Union of Utrecht, eventually joined by the seven northern provinces.
1581 Act of Abjuration, renouncing the authority of Philip II.
1584 Assassination of William I of Orange (the Silent) at Delft.
1585 Recapture of Antwerp by the Spaniards under Parma.
1588 Defeat of the Armada.
1590 William's second son Maurice of Nassau ('stadhouder' of Holland and Zeeland since 1585) becomes 'stadhouder' of Utrecht, Overijssel and Gelderland.
1590-94 Maurice captures Breda, Nijmegen, Groningen and other places.
1602 Foundation of the Dutch East Indies Company.
1609-21 Twelve Years Truce with Spain.
1618-19 Synod of Dort.
1619 Trial and execution of the Advocate, Oldenbarnevelt.
1620 Departure of the 'Pilgrim Fathers' from Holland.
1621 Resumption of war with Spain and foundation of the Dutch West India Company.
1625-26 Foundation of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island.
1625 Publication of Grotius's 'De Jure Belli Ac Pacis'.
Recapture of Breda by the Spaniards (cf. the painting by Velaquez).
Death of Maurice, and succession of his brother Frederick Henry as 'stadhouder'.
1628 Capture of the Silver Fleet by Piet Hein off the coast of Cuba.
Capture of 's Hertogenbosch and other military successes of Frederick Henry.
1632 Rembrandt's 'Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp'.
1637 Recapture of Breda.
1639 Naval battle in the Downs, in which Tromp defeats the Spaniards.
1641 Marriage of Frederick Henry's son William to Mary, daughter of Charles I of England.
1647 Death of Frederick Henry and succession of William II as 'stadhouder' of five provinces.
1648 Recognition of Dutch independence in the Treaty of Münster (Vrede van Münster).
1650 William II's attempt to capture Amsterdam, followed by his death and the birth of a son, later William III.
1650-72 First 'stadhouder-less' period (except in Friesland and Groningen).
1652-54 First Anglo-Dutch war, ending in the Treaty of Westminster.
1653-72 Johan de Witt Grand Pensionary of Holland.
1664 New Amsterdam seized by the English and renamed New York.
1665-67 Second Ango-Dutch war, ending in the raid on the Medway by de Ruyter and the Treaty of Breda.
1667-68 Invasion of the Spanish Netherlands by Louis XIV in the 'War of Devolution'.
1669 Death of Rembrandt.
1670 Publication of Spinoza's 'Tractatus theologico-politicus'.
1672 Outbreak of the third Anglo-Dutch war: invasion of the Republic by the French army; William III raised to power in the time of crisis; lynching of the brothers de Witt.
1674 War with England ends at the Treaty of Westminster.
1677 Marriage of William III to Mary, daughter of James, Duke of York.
1678 War with France ends at the Treaty of Nijmegen.
1685 James II succeeds in England. Persecution of the Huguenots in France (culminating in the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes) leads to a large-scale emigration to the Dutch Republic.
1688 William sails to intervene in England.
1689 William and Mary become King and Queen of England.
1689-97 'War of the League of Augsburg' (or 'War of the English Succession') ending in the Treaty of Rijswijk.
1701 Formation of the 'Grand Alliance' against Louis XIV.
1702 Death of William III and beginning of the second 'stadhouder-less' period (lasting 1747).
1702-13 War of the Spanish Succession, ending at the Treaty of Utrecht.

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This page was first created on --> 25/6/98; 19:02:30 CET
This page was last modified on --> 25/6/98; 21:25:45 CET

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